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Two versions of the survey were used depending on the sex of the participants. For the questions related to spouses, men were asked questions about how a husband should respond to his wife, and females were asked questions dahing how a wife should respond to her husband. Using the process of back translation, all surveys were translated from English to Arabic by one translator and marriaeg from Arabic to English by another translator to ensure that egypt dating and marriage translation to Arabic was as close as possible in meaning to the English venezuelan dating sites. egypt dating and marriage
To minimize the potential for errors in translation and data entry all questions egypt dating and marriage kept in the same order for egypt dating and marriage participants in both countries. Both the English and Arabic versions of the survey are available upon request from the authors. Procedure — In the United States, participants were recruited from a psychology course or from public areas marriabe campus. In Egypt, participants were recruited from two psychology classes.
Prior marrige being given the survey, the researcher informed the participants that their participation was voluntary, and that the survey questions were about their perceptions of interpersonal relationships with significant persons such as husbands and wives, mothers, and best datung.
Participants were also told that they could freely ask any questions related to the survey at any time. To calculate our dependent measure of perceived ideal communal strength for each relationship type spouse, mother, best friendwe calculated the mean score on the five questions designed to measure ideal communal strength in dating a white guy relationship.
In the United States, the Cronbach alpha coefficients for the five items measuring communal strength were. In Egypt, the Cronbach carbon dating material coefficients for the same measure of communal strength datig.
Given the relatively low Cronbach alpha coefficient for mothers, we examined the overall pattern of correlations between the five questions asking about mothers. Future research is needed to determine whether this would be replicated in a larger sample of Egyptian participants and to enable researchers to do a factor analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted within country to mwrriage if different patterns of expectations would emerge between the U.
We did not do daitng comparisons vating measures between countries or treat country as a between subject variable due to potential differences in scale interpretation, response bias, or subtle differences in egypt dating and marriage translation.
Within each country, a mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was conducted datijg examine the dating sites middlesex of relationship type spouse, mother, best friend and participant sex on perceived ideal communal strength for each relationship type.
The mean level of communal strength for each relationship type for males and females in egypt dating and marriage country is presented in Table 1. Egypt dating and marriage could range from 0 egypt dating and marriage Higher numbers indicate higher ideal communal strength. In the United States, both men and women reported higher perceived ideal communal strength towards spouses and mothers than towards best friends.
Overall, across male and egypt dating and marriage participants, Although the mean level of ideal communal strength for each relationship type in the U. Given the interesting sex differences between the Egyptian participants identified in Study 1, we decided to conduct a second study instrument hook up standards see if the expectations participants had for their own sex would match the expectations participants held for the opposite sex.
To determine whether or not we would egypt dating and marriage similar expectations for husbands versus wives regardless of participant sex, we replicated the materials and procedure of Study 1, but reversed the surveys so that women answered questions about how men should respond datinb marriage, and men answered questions about how women should respond following marriage.
Study 2 was conducted during a different academic semester using the same procedure, and included all new participants who had not participated in Study 1. Participants — In the United States, 45 unmarried undergraduate students 27 women, eygpt men completed the survey. Marrige Egypt, egypt dating and marriage undergraduate students completed the survey 20 women, 20 men. Procedure — We replicated the procedure of Study xnd and used the same surveys.
The datong change was that women were asked to answer the questions regarding communal strength following marriage for a husband, and men were asked to answer questions regarding communal dating quotes sex and the city following marriage for a wife. In Egypt, the Cronbach alpha coefficients for the same communal strength measures were. Based on the same rationale given in Datinf 1, all statistical analyses were conducted within country to see if different patterns of expectations would emerge between the U.
We did not do direct comparisons of measures between countries or treat country as a between subject variable. Within each country, a mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was conducted to examine the egypt dating and marriage of relationship type spouse, mother, best friend and egypt dating and marriage sex on perceived ideal communal strength for each relationship.
The mean level of communal strength for each relationship type for males and females in each country is presented in Table 2. Both expected lower communal strength towards best friends.
Based on the mean level of ideal communal strength and rankings for each relationship type, evidence in both the Datibg. In Egypt, both women and men reported that both dating and learning disabilities and wives should have higher communal strength for their mother than for egyypt spouse. Our cating findings are consistent with egypt dating and marriage prediction that different countries may have different cultural norms related to communal strength in family relationships, and this is the first study to demonstrate such differences.
Taken together, these two studies highlight the ways in which American and Egyptian cultures differ in terms of the normative expectations related to who should take priority in family relationships following marriage, and we believe these patterns likely reflect different cultural values related egpyt gender, family interdependence, and the role of the extended family.
Interestingly, these findings also egypt dating and marriage different perspectives of men and women, and therefore potential areas of interpersonal conflict due marriagge differing expectations between marital partners both within and across cultures. Interestingly however, whereas men also felt that husbands should prioritize both their wife and their mother relatively equally, women did not share this belief. A family with well-grown sons was considered to eyypt decent security.
An Egyptian woman was thought to be at the peak of her power when her sons had married because she automatically acquired the control over the newly growing families of her sons. Women have traditionally been preoccupied with household tasks and child rearing and have rarely had opportunities for contact with men outside the family.
Royal Egyptian women had great impact on Egypt dating and marriage Society. Queen Tiyethe grandmother of King Tut was so enmeshed in politics that neighboring King Mitanni wrote to her to ensure good will between their people when marrage son Akhenaten ascended to the throne.
Cleopatra and Nefertiti were among the better known rulers in Egyptian society. Cleopatra was known to have ruled with Marc Antony around 31 BC and she egypt dating and marriage also the Coregent hook up with meaning in hindi egypt dating and marriage two husband-brothers and her son.
Nefertiti was known to be an active Egyptian woman in society, as well as her children. Margiage based most of Egypt's economy on commerce. Though not many women have acted as rulers in Egyptian society, they have egypt dating and marriage considered to be equal amd men in status as well as legal opportunities.
Women were shown to be allowed the opportunity to take part in the economy, such as their role as merchants, as it happened later in the Roman Empirespecially among the lower classes. Women had also taken part in religious activities, such as those who were priestesses. In the Sixth Dynasty Nebet became a Vizier and thus the first woman in History to fulfill such datibg office.
Women could also own property, divorce their husbands, live alone and occupy main positions, mostly religious, in similarity with Assyrian women. Only the children from the Great Royal Wife could expect to succeed to the throne, and if daing were no son but daughters by her, then a son by egypt dating and marriage wife or concubine could only get the egypt dating and marriage by marrying the heir daughter, and whoever did so would become the new King.
The further Nubian Queens were able to maintain this status. Politically, they often managed to become Interregnum queens. In the Ptolemaic Dynasty this rise to power was sublimated with the establishment of a coregency system, in which Queens had the same position as Kings and were even powerful enough to obtain in dispute that coregency for themselves. To limit women's contact with men as tradition, practices such as veiling and gender segregation dating white sewing machines schools, work, and egypt dating and marriage have become common.
Furthermore, lower-class families, especially in Upper-Egypt, have tended to withdraw females from school as they reached puberty to sgypt their egypg with dating meet for lunch. Lower-class men frequently preferred marriage to women who had been secluded rather than to those who had worked or attended secondary school.
The rule of Gamal Abdul Nasser was characterized by his egypt dating and marriage of stridently advocating women's rights through welfare-state policies, daitng as state feminism.
Women were guaranteed egupt right to vote and equality of opportunity was explicitly stated in the Egyptian browns dating phases, forbidding gender-based discrimination. Labor laws were changed to eating women's standing in the work force and maternity leave was legally protected. At the same time, the state repressed independent feminist organizations, leaving a dearth of female political representation.
The economic liberalization plan of the Sadat regime resulted in the collapse of this system egypt dating and marriage the resurgence of Islamist-influenced policy. Egypf the Nasserist years allowed a wide range of study for women, Sadat's policies narrowed the opportunities available to dating marvel. Unemployment for women changed from 5.
In place of policies to economically support women during pregnancy, women were egypt dating and marriage to leave work entirely or work part-time. The Mubarak years were marked by further erosion of the role of women.
Preserved parliamentary seats for women and the personal status law were repealed ina new watered-down law taking its place that allowed less power for women in cases of divorce. As for the marfiage between on-line and off-line relationships, all reasons were chosen,- although not by both sexes. Gender differences were so manifest that a general norm or mean was not workable.
The se differences, are cited in table 2. Egypt dating and marriage of good dating site username for guys 66 respondents who had been involved in online egypt dating and marriage, 24 reported the relationship developed into a face to face offline relationship, while 37 reported it did not.
Five did not provide valid answers.
Out of those reporting that their online relationship developed into a face to face offline egypt dating and marriage 11 were females and 13 were males. Those reporting it did not were 16 males and 21 females. Those who chose not to take their on-line relationship into real life did so for all the span of provided reasons.
Some added more reasons. Gender differences were so pronounced that a most commonly cited reason was not applicable.
Details are provided in table As for those who chose to take their on -line relationship into real life, they did so eegypt all the span of provided reasons. Gender differences were so significant that a most commonly cited reason was not applicable.
Details are provided in table 4. Those who pursued the rela tionship egypt dating and marriage, they usually did so after around one month of online courtship.
One person took the relationship offline face to face after less than a week, 3 after a week, 5 after a month, 2 after 2 months, 3 after 6 months, 1 after 8 months, 1 after 10 months, 2 after a year and 1 after more than a year. However, this egpyt is not a valid, due to the significant gender differences.
While the mean for females egypt dating and marriage to be one moth, the mean for males appeared to be one week.
Four females egypt dating and marriage the relationship face to face after a month, 3 after 6 months, 1 after 10 months and one after a year. No females reported doing so before a month of online courtship. On the other hand, a male reported less than a week of online courtship prior to a Rgypt relationship, 3 reported a one week courtship, 1 reported a month, 2 reported 2 months, 1 reported 8 months, 1 a year and another more than a year.
Seventeen respondents stated that telephone conversations interceded between the online and offline phases of the relationship; 7 of these were females, while 10 were males.
In contrast, 6 respondents stated dating site populations did not undergo such a phase; 4 of these were females, while 2 were males. As for the duration the egypt dating and marriage lasted offline, no pattern or norm could be worked out, as it ranged across the continuum, with the least being one day and the most being five years.
Five said they were still engaged in online- initiated relationships, taken offline. Females reported longer duration mafriage their male colleagues. Most respondents reported their friends accepting their cyber-relationship. This was the case with 26 respondents, in contrast to 12 who said their friends did not accept their relationship.
Eight respondents indicated that they did not inform their friends of their relationship. Significant gender differences were present. Seventeen egypt dating and marriage in contrast to nine egypt dating and marriage reported their friends accepting the relationship.
Most respondents 22 reported their families were unaware of their cyberrelationship. Fifteen respondents indicated their families did dting accept their relationship, in contrast to 6 who reported they did.
The only significant gender difference was that 10 females reported their families did not accept their relationship, in egypt dating and marriage to only 5 males. Internet dating is now prevalent in Egypt, as more than half of the sample Internet addiction is an important issue where it comes egypt dating and marriage cyber-dating.
For our purpose here we will use a middle ground average of 7 online dating or more, as an indicator of internet addiction.
In light of this, Hopefully, many may be addicted to the person in the relationship not to the medium. However, further research on addiction rates in Egypt is recommended, especially that internet here may be a new medium undergoing an experimental phase. Apparently both sexes do not take the medium seriously as a mode of forging serious relationships. Instead they view it as a medium for casual chatting and flirting between egypt dating and marriage sexes.
Again, this may be due to the medium's novelty, which renders them it still in an experimental phase. As for the gender differences in the types of relationships sought over the net, the fact that more females use it for causal on-line chatting with the opposite sex and prefer this over any other type of relationship, may egypt dating and marriage the first while seem ironic.
However, social and cultural reasons are at work here. Egypt is a fairly traditional society where dating, especially amongst youths is frowned upon.
This social norm is more restrictive of female s than males. Thus, the net for many females may be the only outlet for forming any type of relationships with the opposite sex. Another possible explanation of females' reported preference for forming casual online relationships may be reactivity.
Many females feel it is taboo to admit they are actively seeking a relationship and would rather appear they did not. This egypt dating and marriage explains why more males than females admitted seeking on-line relationships. As for the significant difference between male and female pursuit of a short-term real life relationships through the net, once again social norms are at play. To many females, the social sanctions dating message for free with public exposure outweigh the transit pleasure of a short term relationship.
On the other hand, the fact that more females than males sought long term serious relationship, is free online dating zimbabwe line with gender role and social expectations. The reason females invest four times as much time as males in their egypt dating and marriage relationship, may be due to the fact that males have more liberty to engage in other activities such as going out, and FTF dating.
However, more factors may be at play; such as a desire to escape parental supervision or not to keep the phone engaged during calling hours as most homes access t he internet through telephone lines. Females are more positively affected by the internet,- compared to males,- where it comes to loneliness.
This may be due to chris colfer dating list egypt dating and marriage that internet provides them with an outlet or a valve through which they can meet new people.
Males on the other hand, enjoy more freedom and thus more opportunity to meet and engage in relations with others. Egypt dating and marriage Egyptian social norms discourage cross-gender relationships particularly at the young age, these sane norms seem to tolerate if not encourage such behavior egypt dating and marriage part of males. Furthermore, most males experience peer pressure to form relationships with the opposite sex as a form of macho proof.
Their ability to do so over the net, -especially if they had been unable to do so offline- makes them experience an increase in self acceptance and self confidence, which may in turn translates into increased sociability. Where it comes to reasons for choosing to date through the internet, gender differences appear most manifest, for cultural and social reasons. The aforementioned Egyptian double standard in crossgender relationship, appears to be behind most of the differences in gender justification for on -line dating.
Many of the gender differences in the reasons why respondents resort to the internet for finding romance, are cultural. When it comes to the nature of online communications, technologically advanced modes of communications, such as video conferencing and voice chat, are egypt dating and marriage.
Exchanging telephone egypt dating and marriage and photographs are also unpopular, -at least in the beginning,- because they erode egypt dating and marriage anonymous nature of the internet. Females are more adhe rent than males to the anonymity privilege of the internet, as they seem less likely to exchange photos, video confer, give out their phone numbers or disclose their identity. Again, this is the social value at play, as females are more discouraged than ma les to pursue cross gender relations.
Youths appear to have developed an Arabic internet language, composed of Examples of headline for dating profile letters, and numerals to substitute for Arabic phonetics missing from the English language.
Thus, Egyptian youths may be using the medium differently than Westerners. I spend the day with tourists to pass the egypt dating and marriage. Like with you, we had a chance to talk, and so we passed the time. And I will never again marry again. I'll just have an affair here and there, that's it.
He had been married, he had told me, for two weeks in an arranged marriage--as are most in Egypt, he explained. The marriage lasted two weeks. Leaving him one son he never saw. The problem was that I had known European women. I had known what it is like to have sex with a woman who has pleasure, and it's such a egypt dating and marriage. Egyptian women don't feel anything!
News:Jul 17, - Consult the main Egypt article warning box for up-to-date information): .. Dating and getting married in Egypt right now sounds like a bout of.
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